Arduino is a circuit board free material on which is located a microcontroller that can be programmed to analyze and produce electrical signals, in order to perform tasks very different as home automation
(the control household appliances - lighting, heating...), a robot flying, etc. It is a platform based on a simple input/output interface.
It was originally intended primarily but not exclusively for show or art animation interactive multimedia programming. It is a part of the explanation of the offspring of its Processing programming interface, itself inspired by the programming environment Wiring.
Arduino can be used to build independent interactive objects (rapid prototyping), or else may be connected to a computer to connect with its software (example : ) Macromedia Flash, Processing, Max/MSP, Usine Hollyhock, Pure Data, SuperCollider).
In 2011, the versions sold are pre-assembled. Information is provided for those who wish to assemble theArduino themselves.
The project Arduino has received an honorific title to theArts Electronica 2006, in the category Digital Communities.
THEArduino imprint his name to the Bar di Re , a pub in the city ofIvréelocated in Northern Italy. The proper name Arduino comes from Ardennes.
A module Arduino is usually built around a microcontroller Atmel AVR (ATmega328 or ATmega2560 for recent versions. ATmega168 or ATmega8 for the oldest), and additional components that facilitate programming and interfacing with other circuits.
Each module has at least a 5 V linear regulator and a 16 MHz quartz oscillator (or ceramic resonator in some models).
The microcontroller is pre-programmed with a bootloader So what a dedicated programmer is not necessary.
The modules are programmed through a serial RS232 connection, but connections to this programming differ depending on the model. The first Arduino had a serial port,
then the USB appeared on models DiecimilaWhile some modules for portable use are free of the interface programming, relocated on a USB-serial module (as a card or cable).
The Arduino uses most of the inputs/outputs of the microcontroller for interfacing with other circuits. The model Diecimila for example, has 14 input/output digital, whose 6 can produce PWM signals, and 6 analog inputs.
Connections are made through female connectors HE14 located on top of the map, the plug-ins from piling on theArduino. Several kinds of extensions are available in the trade.
The programming of the modules software Arduino is a free Java application and cross-platform, using code editor and compiler, and who can transfer the firmware and the program through the serial (RS232, Bluetooth or USB depending on the module).
It is also possible to dispense with the interface Arduino, and to compile and upload programs via the command line interface.
The programming language is C++, compiled with g ++, and linked to the development library Arduinoallowing the use of the card and its inputs/outputs.
The implementation of this standard language makes it easy the development of programs on platforms Arduino, to anyone mastering the C or C++.
The origin of the different versions of the Arduino modules are manufactured by the Italian company Smart Projects. Some of the cards of brand Arduino have been designed by the American company SparkFun Electronics.
Seventeen versions of type maps Arduino ont été produites et vendues dans le commerce à ce jour dans l'ordre chronologique ci-dessous :
* Serial Arduino, programmed with a connection series by DB9 connector and using a ATmega8.
* Arduino Extremeprogrammable via a USB connection and using a ATmega8.
* Arduino Mini, a miniature version of the Arduino using a ATmega168 type CMS.
* Arduino Nano, an even smaller version of theArduino powered by USB and using an ATmega168 (before version 3) or ATmega328 (starting from version 3.0) CMS type.
* LilyPad Arduino, a type design minimalist for a portable application using a ATmega168 type CMS.
* Arduino NGprogrammable via a USB connection and using a ATmega8.
* Arduino NG +programmable via a USB connection and using a ATmega168.
* Arduino Bluetooth(BT)programmable via a Bluetooth connection and using a ATmega 3285.
* Arduino Diecimilahas a USB interface and uses an ATmega168 in a DIL28 format box. (16 ko flash, 1 ko SRAM, 0,5 ko EEPROM)
* Arduino Duemilanove (2009) using a Atmega168 and is supplied with electricity by the USB connector or an external power supply with switch automatique6. The new 7 is equipped with an ATmega328 (32 KB flash, 2 KB of SRAM, and 1 KB of EEPROM).
* Arduino Mega is equipped with a ATmega1280 type CMS for input/output and additional memory (128 ko flash, 8 ko SRAM, 4 ko EEPROM).
* Arduino Uno uses a ATmega328 as the latest models of Duemilanove, but then the Duemilanove used a FTDI chip for programming via a USB connector, the Uno uses a chip programmed as a serie9 converter ATmega8U2.
* Arduino Mega2560 is equipped with a ATmega2560 type CMS, increasing the total memory available to 256 KB. It is also equipped with the new USB chip ATmega8U210.
* Arduino Ethernet is a map Arduino UNO integrating a chip Wiznet W5100 to add the built-in Ethernet connectivity.
* Arduino Leonardo is a low-cost of theArduino UNO basis for ATmega32U4.
* Arduino DUE is a development of theArduino Mega2560 with a micro * controller 32 bits Atmel SAM3X (ARM 32 bits Cortex*M3).
* Arduino Esplora is a map derived from the Arduino Leonardo. It has the shape of a joystick.
Unlike the other Arduino, it is an \all-in-one\ card which contains many sensors (temperature, acceleration, light, microphone, potentiometer,...) as well as 4 push buttons, a slider and an analogique.ersions joystick
|Arduino||microcontroller||Flash ko||EEPROM ko||kb SRAM||pins I/O digital||.. .with PWM||analog input pins||USB interface Type||Dimensions inches Dimensions mm|
|Diecimila||ATmega168||16||0.5||1||14||6||6||FTDI||2.7 \x 2.1\ 68.6 mm x 53.3 mm|
|Duemilanove||ATmega168/328P||16/32||0.5/1||1/2||14||6||6||FTDI||2.7 \x 2.1\ 68.6 mm x 53.3 mm|
|UNO||ATmega328P||32||1||2||14||6||6||ATmega16U2||2.7 \x 2.1\ 68.6 mm x 53.3 mm|
|Leonardo||ATmega32U4||32||1||2.5||20||7||12||ATmega32U4||2.7 \x 2.1\ 68.6 mm x 53.3 mm|
|Mega||ATmega1280||128||4||8||54||15||16||FTDI||4 \x 2.1\ 101.6 mm x 53.3 mm|
|Mega2560||ATmega2560||256||4||8||54||15||16||ATmega8U2||4 \x 2.1\ 101.6 mm x 53.3 mm|
|Due||Atmel SAM3X8E||512||0||96||54||12||12 SAM3X8E (USB Host), ATmega16u2 (programming)||4 \x 2.1\ 101.6 mm x 53.3 mm|
|FIO||ATmega328P||32||1||2||14||6||8||No||1.6 \x 1.1\ 40.6 mm x 27.9 mm|
|Nano||ATmega168 or ATmega328||16/32||0.5/1||1/2||14||6||8||FTDI||1.70 \x 0.73\ 43 mm x 18 mm|
|LilyPad||ATmega168V gold ATmega328V||16||0.5||1||14||6||6||No||2 \ø 50 mm o|
|Yun12||ATmega32u4||32||1||2.5||20||7||12||73 mm x 53 mm|
|Explore||ATmega32U4||32||1||2.5||N/A||N/A||N/A||ATmega32U4||6.5 \x 2.4\ 165.1 mm x 60.96 mm|
The different versions of Arduino operate under the same general principle :
A : these are digital said feet (0.1) or \all or nothing\; They offer the 5V output and accept input from the 5V on the same principle.
function digitalWrite() and digitalRead()
B : analog say legs, value between 0V and 5V function analogWrite() and analogRead()
C : different legs of power :
Red : out (+) 5V
Orange : exit 3, 3V (+)
Black : the masses (-)
Yellow : entry related to food (7V - 12V)
There are variations between the different cards (ex : ) UNOleg 13 is equipped with a resistance)
Hardware and software derivatives
Several software and hardware compatible Arduino (although not official) have been produced commercially by other manufacturers :
-Kits Freeduino Bare Bones Board and Really Bare Bones Board compatible Arduinomanufactured and sold by Modern Device Company.
-The Freeduino Through-Holecompatible Arduinomodule avoiding the use of SMD components and intended for a personal fabrication; manufactured and sold by NKC Electronics (as a kit).
-The Boarduino, a cheap clone of the Diecimila, with connectors for use on test plate.
-The Romeo, variation of theArduino Uno dediee dedicated to robotics, provides power interfaces for controlling motors. The Romeo is published by DFRobot.
Versions Fundamental Logic Kit or mounted, the MaxSerial Freeduino compatible Arduino DiecimilaOptional RS - 232, power supply 3.3 V interface on the map; and the mini iDuino for use on test plate.
THEEducaduino designed by the French company Eurosmart in 2013.
Several compatible software Arduino (although not official) have been developed to facilitate the programming of cards Arduino. Although very different from the other, they allow a programming without use of language Arduino. We find :
-The graphic solution Ardublock which allows a programming by assembling building blocks. Is a plug-in that adds a GUI to that ofArduino.
-The graphic solution MiniBloq It also allows a programming by assembling building blocks. It's a plug-in which adds a GUI to that ofArduino.
-EDU pseudo-langage that allows programming with a set of simplified key words. It is a library that allows writing a program in french directly in the interface Arduino.
Map of control for printers 3D RepRap like the Generation Electronics or the Sanguinololu base on a map Arduino completed by drivers of motor stepper acquisitions of temperature and power output.
Autopilot for Drones like for example the ArduPilot systems systems APM:Plane & APM:Copter or cards FlyDuino allow stabilization as well as programming mission, to transform a model a Drone.
Some music software offer through their series module integration of theArduino in the process of creating music.
Examples on Arduino with the software Usine hollyhock.