full 3d tv
full 3d tv


There are several techniques to produce and display 3D moving pictures.
Most modern 3D television sets use an active shutter 3D system or a polarized 3D system, and some are autostereoscopic without the need of glasses.

3D televisions shipments totaled 41.45 million units in 2012, compared with 24.14 in 2011 and 2.26 in 2010. As of late 2013, the number of 3D TV viewers started to decline.

the two images are superimposed through two filters, one red and one cyan
the two images are superimposed through two filters, one red and one cyan


In an anaglyph, the two images are superimposed in an additive light setting through two filters, one red and one cyan. In a subtractive light setting, the two images are printed in the same complementary colors on white paper. Glasses with colored filters in each eye separate the appropriate images by canceling the filter color out and rendering the complementary color black. A compensating technique, commonly known as Anachrome, uses a slightly more transparent cyan filter in the patented glasses associated with the technique. Process reconfigures the typical anaglyph image to have less parallax.
An alternative to the usual red and cyan filter system of anaglyph is ColorCode 3-D, a patented anaglyph system which was invented in order to present an anaglyph image in conjunction with the NTSC television standard, in which the red channel is often compromised. ColorCode uses the complementary colors of yellow and dark blue on-screen, and the colors of the glasses' lenses are amber and dark blue.

Multi-view capture

Multi-view capture uses arrays of many cameras to capture a 3D scene through multiple independent video streams.
After capture, stereo or multi-view image data can be processed to extract 2D plus depth information for each view, effectively creating a device-independent representation of the original 3D scene.
2D plus depth processing can be used to recreate 3D scenes even from a single view and convert legacy film and video material to a 3D look, though a convincing effect is harder to achieve and the resulting image will likely look like a cardboard miniature.

3D-ready TV sets operate in 3D mode using technology to recreate a stereoscopic image
3D-ready TV sets operate in 3D mode using technology to recreate a stereoscopic image

3D-ready TV sets

3D-ready TV sets are those that can operate in 3D mode (in addition to regular 2D mode) using one of several display technologies to recreate a stereoscopic image. These TV sets usually support HDMI 1.4 and a minimum output refresh rate of 120 Hz; glasses may be sold separately.

The Chinese manufacturer TCL Corporation has developed a 42-inch (110 cm) LCD 3D TV called the TD-42F, which is currently available in China. This model uses a lenticular system and does not require any special glasses (autostereoscopy). It currently sells for approximately $20,000.
Onida, LG, Samsung, Sony, and Philips intend to increase their 3D TV offering with plans to make 3D TV sales account for over 5024021255160f their respective TV distribution offering by 2012. It is expected that the screens will use a mixture of technologies until there is standardisation across the industry. Samsung offers the LED 7000, LCD 750, PDP 7000 TV sets and the Blu-ray 6900.

2 cameras are mounted side by side
2 cameras are mounted side by side


The most widely accepted method for capturing and delivering 3D video is Stereoscopy . It involves capturing stereo pairs in a two-view setup, with cameras mounted side by side and separated by the same distance as is between a person's pupils.
Perspective modifies the Z and Y coordinates of the object point, by a factor of D/(D-x), while binocular shift contributes an additional term. The binocular shift is positive for the left-eye-view and negative for the right-eye-view. For very distant object points, it is obvious that the eyes will be looking along essentially the same line of sight. For very near objects, the eyes may become excessively \\cross-eyed\\.

However, for scenes in the greater portion of the field of view, a realistic image is readily achieved by superposition of the left and right images provided the viewer is not too near the screen and the left and right images are correctly positioned on the screen.
Digital technology has largely eliminated inaccurate superposition that was a common problem during the era of traditional stereoscopic films.

images are projected superimposed through polarizing filters
images are projected superimposed through polarizing filters

Polarization systems

To present a stereoscopic picture, two images are projected superimposed onto the same screen through different polarizing filters. The viewer wears eyeglasses which also contain a pair of polarizing filters oriented differently (clockwise/counterclockwise with circular polarization or at 90 degree angles, usually 45 and 135 degrees, with linear polarization). As each filter passes only that light which is similarly polarized and blocks the light polarized differently, each eye sees a different image.
This is used to produce a three-dimensional effect by projecting the same scene into both eyes, but depicted from slightly different perspectives.
Additionally, since both lenses have the same color, people with one dominant eye (amblyopia), where one eye is used more, are able to see the 3D effect, previously negated by the separation of the two colors.

Circular polarization has an advantage over linear polarization, in that the viewer does not need to have their head upright and aligned with the screen for the polarization to work properly. With linear polarization, turning the glasses sideways causes the filters to go out of alignment with the screen filters causing the image to fade and for each eye to see the opposite frame more easily.
For circular polarization, the polarizing effect works regardless of how the viewer's head is aligned with the screen such as tilted sideways, or even upside down.

Polarized light reflected from an ordinary motion picture screen typically loses most of its polarization. So an expensive silver screen or aluminized screen with negligible polarization loss has to be used. All types of polarization will result in a darkening of the displayed image and poorer contrast compared to non-3D images.
Light from lamps is normally emitted as a random collection of polarizations, while a polarization filter only passes a fraction of the light. As a result the screen image is darker. This darkening can be compensated by increasing the brightness of the projector light source.
If the initial polarization filter is inserted between the lamp and the image generation element, the light intensity striking the image element is not any higher than normal without the polarizing filter, and overall image contrast transmitted to the screen is not affected.

parallax barrier is used to display a 3D image
parallax barrier is used to display a 3D image


The Nintendo 3DS uses parallax barrier autostereoscopy to display a 3D image.
In this method, glasses are not necessary to see the stereoscopic image. Lenticular lens and parallax barrier technologies involve imposing two (or more) images on the same sheet, in narrow, alternating strips, and using a screen that either blocks one of the two images' strips (in the case of parallax barriers) or uses equally narrow lenses to bend the strips of image and make it appear to fill the entire image (in the case of lenticular prints).

To produce the stereoscopic effect, the person must be positioned so that one eye sees one of the two images and the other sees the other. The optical principles of multiview auto-stereoscopy have been known for over a century.
Both images are projected onto a high-gain, corrugated screen which reflects light at acute angles. In order to see the stereoscopic image, the viewer must sit within a very narrow angle that is nearly perpendicular to the screen, limiting the size of the audience.

Lenticular was used for theatrical presentation of numerous shorts in Russia from 1940 to 1948 and in 1946 for the feature length film Robinzon Kruzo
Though its use in theatrical presentations has been rather limited, lenticular has been widely used for a variety of novelty items and has even been used in amateur 3D photography. Recent use includes the Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D with an autostereoscopic display that was released in 2009. Other examples for this technology include autostereoscopic LCD displays on monitors, notebooks, TVs, mobile phones and gaming